OpenBSD 6.3 and DragonflyBSD 5.2 are released, bug fix for disappearing files in OpenZFS on Linux (and only Linux), understanding the FreeBSD CPU scheduler, NetBSD on RPI3, thoughts on being a committer for 20 years, and 5 reasons to use FreeBSD in 2018.Headlines OpenBSD 6.3 released
Big-ticket items Meltdown and Spectre mitigation support Meltdown isolation and spectre mitigation support added. Meltdown mitigation is automatically enabled for all Intel cpus. Spectre mitigation must be enabled manually via sysctl if desired, using sysctls machdep.spectremitigation and machdep.meltdownmitigation. HAMMER2 H2 has received a very large number of bug fixes and performance improvements. We can now recommend H2 as the default root filesystem in non-clustered mode. Clustered support is not yet available. ipfw Updates Implement state based "redirect", i.e. without using libalias. ipfw now supports all possible ICMP types. Fix ICMPMAXTYPE assumptions (now 40 as of this release). Improved graphics support The drm/i915 kernel driver has been updated to support Intel Coffeelake GPUs Add 24-bit pixel format support to the EFI frame buffer code. Significantly improve fbio support for the "scfb" XOrg driver. This allows EFI frame buffers to be used by X in situations where we do not otherwise support the GPU. Partly implement the FBIOBLANK ioctl for display powersaving. Syscons waits for drm modesetting at appropriate places, avoiding races. + For more details, check out the “All changes since DragonFly 5.0” section.ZFS on Linux bug causes files to disappear
Yesterday was the twentieth anniversary of my FreeBSD commit bit, and tomorrow will be the twentieth anniversary of my first commit. I figured I’d split the difference and write a few words about it today.
My level of engagement with the FreeBSD project has varied greatly over the twenty years I’ve been a committer. There have been times when I worked on it full-time, and times when I did not touch it for months. The last few years, health issues and life events have consumed my time and sapped my energy, and my contributions have come in bursts. Commit statistics do not tell the whole story, though: even when not working on FreeBSD directly, I have worked on side projects which, like OpenPAM, may one day find their way into FreeBSD.
My contributions have not been limited to code. I was the project’s first Bugmeister; I’ve served on the Security Team for a long time, and have been both Security Officer and Deputy Security Officer; I managed the last four Core Team elections and am doing so again this year.
In return, the project has taught me much about programming and software engineering. It taught me code hygiene and the importance of clarity over cleverness; it taught me the ins and outs of revision control; it taught me the importance of good documentation, and how to write it; and it taught me good release engineering practices.
Last but not least, it has provided me with the opportunity to work with some of the best people in the field. I have the privilege today to count several of them among my friends.
For better or worse, the FreeBSD project has shaped my career and my life. It set me on the path to information security in general and IAA in particular, and opened many a door for me. I would not be where I am now without it.
I won’t pretend to be able to tell the future. I don’t know how long I will remain active in the FreeBSD project and community. It could be another twenty years; or it could be ten, or five, or less. All I know is that FreeBSD and I still have things to teach each other, and I don’t intend to call it quits any time soon.iXsystems unveils new TrueNAS M-Series Unified Storage Line
San Jose, Calif., April 10, 2018 — iXsystems, the leader in Enterprise Open Source servers and software-defined storage, announced the TrueNAS M40 and M50 as the newest high-performance models in its hybrid, unified storage product line. The TrueNAS M-Series harnesses NVMe and NVDIMM to bring all-flash array performance to the award-winning TrueNAS hybrid arrays. It also includes the Intel® Xeon® Scalable Family of Processors and supports up to 100GbE and 32Gb Fibre Channel networking. Sitting between the all-flash TrueNAS Z50 and the hybrid TrueNAS X-Series in the product line, the TrueNAS M-Series delivers up to 10 Petabytes of highly-available and flash-powered network attached storage and rounds out a comprehensive product set that has a capacity and performance option for every storage budget.
As a unified file, block, and object sharing solution, TrueNAS can meet the needs of file serving, backup, virtualization, media production, and private cloud users thanks to its support for the SMB, NFS, AFP, iSCSI, Fibre Channel, and S3 protocols.
At the heart of the TrueNAS M-Series is a custom 4U, dual-controller head unit that supports up to 24 3.5” drives and comes in two models, the M40 and M50, for maximum flexibility and scalability. The TrueNAS M40 uses NVDIMMs for write cache, SSDs for read cache, and up to two external 60-bay expansion shelves that unlock up to 2PB in capacity. The TrueNAS M50 uses NVDIMMs for write caching, NVMe drives for read caching, and up to twelve external 60-bay expansion shelves to scale upwards of 10PB. The dual-controller design provides high-availability failover and non-disruptive upgrades for mission-critical enterprise environments.
By design, the TrueNAS M-Series unleashes cutting-edge persistent memory technology for demanding performance and capacity workloads, enabling businesses to accelerate enterprise applications and deploy enterprise private clouds that are twice the capacity of previous TrueNAS models. It also supports replication to the Amazon S3, BackBlaze B2, Google Cloud, and Microsoft Azure cloud platforms and can deliver an object store using the ubiquitous S3 object storage protocol at a fraction of the cost of the public cloud.
As a true enterprise storage platform, the TrueNAS M50 supports very demanding performance workloads with up to four active 100GbE ports, 3TB of RAM, 32GB of NVDIMM write cache and up to 15TB of NVMe flash read cache. The TrueNAS M40 and M50 include up to 24/7 and global next-business-day support, putting IT at ease. The modular and tool-less design of the M-Series allows for easy, non-disruptive servicing and upgrading by end-users and support technicians for guaranteed uptime. TrueNAS has US-Based support provided by the engineering team that developed it, offering the rapid response that every enterprise needs.
Award-Winning TrueNAS Features
The TrueNAS M40 and M50 will be generally available in April 2018 through the iXsystems global channel partner network. The TrueNAS M-Series starts at under $20,000 USD and can be easily expanded using a linear “per terabyte” pricing model. With typical compression, a Petabtye can be stored for under $100,000 USD. TrueNAS comes with an all-inclusive software suite that provides NFS, Windows SMB, iSCSI, snapshots, clones and replication.Understanding and tuning the FreeBSD Scheduler
``` Occasionally I noticed that the system would not quickly process the tasks i need done, but instead prefer other, longrunning tasks. I figured it must be related to the scheduler, and decided it hates me.
A closer look shows the behaviour as follows (single CPU):
Lets run an I/O-active task, e.g, postgres VACUUM that would continuously read from big files (while doing compute as well ):
pool alloc free read write read write cache - - - - - - ada1s4 7.08G 10.9G 1.58K 0 12.9M 0
Now start an endless loop:while true; do :; done
And the effect is:
pool alloc free read write read write cache - - - - - - ada1s4 7.08G 10.9G 9 0 76.8K 0
The VACUUM gets almost stuck! This figures with WCPU in "top":
PID USERNAME PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE TIME WCPU COMMAND 85583 root 99 0 7044K 1944K RUN 1:06 92.21% bash 53005 pgsql 52 0 620M 91856K RUN 5:47 0.50% postgres
Hacking on kern.sched.quantum makes it quite a bit better:sysctl kern.sched.quantum=1
kern.sched.quantum: 94488 -> 7874
pool alloc free read write read write cache - - - - - - ada1s4 7.08G 10.9G 395 0 3.12M 0
PID USERNAME PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE TIME WCPU COMMAND 85583 root 94 0 7044K 1944K RUN 4:13 70.80% bash 53005 pgsql 52 0 276M 91856K RUN 5:52 11.83% postgres
Now, as usual, the "root-cause" questions arise: What exactly does this "quantum"? Is this solution a workaround, i.e. actually something else is wrong, and has it tradeoff in other situations? Or otherwise, why is such a default value chosen, which appears to be ill-deceived?
The docs for the quantum parameter are a bit unsatisfying - they say its the max num of ticks a process gets - and what happens when they're exhausted? If by default the endless loop is actually allowed to continue running for 94k ticks (or 94ms, more likely) uninterrupted, then that explains the perceived behaviour - buts thats certainly not what a scheduler should do when other procs are ready to run.
11.1-RELEASE-p7, kern.hz=200. Switching tickless mode on or off does not influence the matter. Starting the endless loop with "nice" does not influence the matter.
 A pure-I/O job without compute load, like "dd", does not show this behaviour. Also, when other tasks are running, the unjust behaviour is not so stongly pronounced. ```aarch64 support added
I have committed about adding initial support for aarch64.
``` boot NetBSD/evbarm (aarch64) Drop to EL1...OK Creating VA=PA tables Creating KSEG tables Creating KVA=PA tables Creating devmap tables MMU Enable...OK VSTART = ffffffc000001ff4 FDT<3ab46000> devmap cpufunc bootstrap consinit ok uboot: args 0x3ab46000, 0, 0, 0NetBSD/evbarm (fdt) booting ... FDT /memory  @ 0x0 size 0x3b000000 MEM: add 0-3b000000 MEM: res 0-1000 MEM: res 3ab46000-3ab4a000 Usable memory: 1000 - 3ab45fff 3ab4a000 - 3affffff initarm: kernel phys start 1000000 end 17bd000 MEM: res 1000000-17bd000 bootargs: root=axe0 1000 - ffffff 17bd000 - 3ab45fff 3ab4a000 - 3affffff ------------------------------------------ kern_vtopdiff = 0xffffffbfff000000 physical_start = 0x0000000000001000 kernel_start_phys = 0x0000000001000000 kernel_end_phys = 0x00000000017bd000 physical_end = 0x000000003ab45000 VM_MIN_KERNEL_ADDRESS = 0xffffffc000000000 kernel_start_l2 = 0xffffffc000000000 kernel_start = 0xffffffc000000000 kernel_end = 0xffffffc0007bd000 kernel_end_l2 = 0xffffffc000800000 (kernel va area) (devmap va area) VM_MAX_KERNEL_ADDRESS = 0xffffffffffe00000 ------------------------------------------ Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 The NetBSD Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993 The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. NetBSD 8.99.14 (RPI64) #11: Fri Mar 30 12:34:19 JST 2018 ryo@moveq:/usr/home/ryo/tmp/netbsd-src-ryo-wip/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI64 total memory = 936 MB avail memory = 877 MB
…Starting local daemons:. Updating motd. Starting sshd. Starting inetd. Starting cron. The following components reported failures: /etc/rc.d/swap2 See /var/run/rc.log for more information. Fri Mar 30 12:35:31 JST 2018 NetBSD/evbarm (rpi3) (console) login: root Last login: Fri Mar 30 12:30:24 2018 on console rpi3# uname -ap NetBSD rpi3 8.99.14 NetBSD 8.99.14 (RPI64) #11: Fri Mar 30 12:34:19 JST 2018 ryo@moveq:/usr/home/ryo/tmp/netbsd-src-ryo-wip/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI64 evbarm aarch64 rpi3#
Now, multiuser mode works stably on fdt based boards (RPI3,SUNXI,TEGRA). But there are still some problems, more time is required for release. also SMP is not yet. See sys/arch/aarch64/aarch64/TODO for more detail. Especially the problems around TLS of rtld, and C++ stack unwindings are too difficult for me to solve, I give up and need someone's help (^o^)/ Since C++ doesn't work, ATF also doesn't work. If the ATF works, it will clarify more issues.
sys/arch/evbarm64 is gone and integrated into sys/arch/evbarm. One evbarm/conf/GENERIC64 kernel binary supports all fdt (bcm2837,sunxi,tegra) based boards. While on 32bit, sys/arch/evbarm/conf/GENERIC will support all fdt based boards...but doesn't work yet. (WIP)
My deepest appreciation goes to Tohru Nishimura (nisimura@) whose writes vector handlers, context switchings, and so on. and his comments and suggestions were innumerably valuable. I would also like to thank Nick Hudson (skrll@) and Jared McNeill (jmcneill@) whose added support FDT and integrated into evbarm. Finally, I would like to thank Matt Thomas (matt@) whose commited aarch64 toolchains and preliminary support for aarch64.Beastie Bits
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