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Episode 258: OS Foundations | BSD Now 258

1:27:52

Episode description

FreeBSD Foundation July Newsletter, a bunch of BSDCan trip reports, HardenedBSD Foundation status, FreeBSD and OSPFd, ZFS disk structure overview, and more Spectre mitigations in OpenBSD.

##Headlines
###FreeBSD Foundation Update, July 2018

  • MESSAGE FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

We’re in the middle of summer here, in Boulder, CO. While the days are typically hot, they can also be quite unpredictable. Thanks to the Rocky Mountains, waking up to 50-degree (~10 C) foggy weather is not surprising. In spite of the unpredictable weather, many of us took some vacation this month. Whether it was extending the Fourth of July celebration, spending time with family, or relaxing and enjoying the summer weather, we appreciated our time off, while still managing to accomplish a lot!
In this newsletter, Glen Barber enlightens us about the upcoming 12.0 release. I gave a recap of OSCON, that Ed Maste and I attended, and Mark Johnston explains the work on his improved microcode loading project, that we are funding. Finally, Anne Dickison gives us a rundown on upcoming events and information on submitting a talk for MeetBSD.
Your support helps us continue this work. Please consider making a donation today. We can’t do it without you. Happy reading!!

  • June 2018 Development Projects Update
  • Fundraising Update: Supporting the Project
  • July 2018 Release Engineering Update
  • OSCON 2018 Recap
  • Submit Your Work: MeetBSD 2018
  • FreeBSD Discount for 2018 SNIA Developer Conference
  • EuroBSDcon 2018 Travel Grant Application Deadline: August 2

iXsystems

###BSDCan Trip Reports

##News Roundup
###FreeBSD and OSPFd

With FreeBSD jails deployed around the world, static routing was getting a bit out of hand. Plus, when I needed to move a jail from one data center to another, I would have to update routing tables across multiple sites. Not ideal. Enter dynamic routing…

OSPF (open shortest path first) is an internal dynamic routing protocol that provides the autonomy that I needed and it’s fairly easy to setup. This article does not cover configuration of VPN links, ZFS, or Freebsd jails, however it’s recommended that you use seperate ZFS datasets per jail so that migration between hosts can be done with zfs send & receive.

In this scenario, we have five FreeBSD servers in two different data centers. Each physical server runs anywhere between three to ten jails. When jails are deployed, they are assigned a /32 IP on lo2. From here, pf handles inbound port forwarding and outbound NAT. Links between each server are provided by OpenVPN TAP interfaces. (I used TAP to pass layer 2 traffic. I seem to remember that I needed TAP interfaces due to needing GRE tunnels on top of TUN interfaces to get OSPF to communicate. I’ve heard TAP is slower than TUN so I may revisit this.)

In this example, we will use 172.16.2.0/24 as the range for OpenVPN P2P links and 172.16.3.0/24 as the range of IPs available for assignment to each jail. Previously, when deploying a jail, I assigned IPs based on the following groups:

Server 1: 172.16.3.0/28
Server 2: 172.16.3.16/28
Server 3: 172.16.3.32/28
Server 4: 172.16.3.48/28
Server 5: 172.16.3.64/28

When statically routing, this made routing tables a bit smaller and easier to manage. However, when I needed to migrate a jail to a new host, I had to add a new /32 to all routing tables. Now, with OSPF, this is no longer an issue, nor is it required.

  • To get started, first we install the Quagga package.

  • The two configuration files needed to get OSPFv2 running are /usr/local/etc/quagga/zebra.conf and /usr/local/etc/quagga/ospfd.conf.

  • Starting with zebra.conf, we’ll define the hostname and a management password.

  • Second, we will populate the ospfd.conf file.

  • To break this down:

  • service advanced-vty allows you to skip the en or enable command. Since I’m the only one who uses this service, it’s one less command to type.

  • ip ospf authentication message-digest and ip ospf message-diget-key… ignores non-authenticated OSPF communication. This is useful when communicating over the WAN and to prevent a replay attack. Since I’m using a VPN to communicate, I could exclude these.

  • passive-interface default turns off the active communication of OSPF messages on all interfaces except for the interfaces listed as no passive-interface [interface name]. Since my ospf communication needs to leverage the VPNs, this prevents the servers from trying to send ospf data out the WAN interface (a firewall would work too).

  • network 172.16.2.0/23 area 0.0.0.0 lists a supernet of both 172.16.2.0/24 and 172.16.3.0/24. This ensures routes for the jails are advertised along with the P2P links used by OpenVPN. The OpenVPN links are not required but can provide another IP to access your server if one of the links goes down. (See the suggested tasks below).

  • At this point, we can enable the services in rc.conf.local and start them.

  • We bind the management interface to 127.0.0.1 so that it’s only accessable to local telnet sessions. If you want to access this service remotely, you can bind to a remotely accessable IP. Remember telnet is not secure. If you need remote access, use a VPN.

  • To manage the services, you can telnet to your host’s localhost address.

  • Use 2604 for the ospf service.

  • Remember, this is accessible by non-root users so set a good password.

###A broad overview of how ZFS is structured on disk

When I wrote yesterday’s entry, it became clear that I didn’t understand as much about how ZFS is structured on disk (and that this matters, since I thought that ZFS copy on write updates updated a lot more than they do). So today I want to write down my new broad understanding of how this works. (All of this can be dug out of the old, draft ZFS on-disk format specification, but that spec is written in a very detailed way and things aren’t always immediately clear from it.)

Almost everything in ZFS is in DMU object. All objects are defined by a dnode, and object dnodes are almost always grouped together in an object set. Object sets are themselves DMU objects; they store dnodes as basically a giant array in a ‘file’, which uses data blocks and indirect blocks and so on, just like anything else. Within a single object set, dnodes have an object number, which is the index of their position in the object set’s array of dnodes. (Because an object number is just the index of the object’s dnode in its object set’s array of dnodes, object numbers are basically always going to be duplicated between object sets (and they’re always relative to an object set). For instance, pretty much every object set is going to have an object number ten, although not all object sets may have enough objects that they have an object number ten thousand. One corollary of this is that if you ask zdb to tell you about a given object number, you have to tell zdb what object set you’re talking about. Usually you do this by telling zdb which ZFS filesystem or dataset you mean.)

Each ZFS filesystem has its own object set for objects (and thus dnodes) used in the filesystem. As I discovered yesterday, every ZFS filesystem has a directory hierarchy and it may go many levels deep, but all of this directory hierarchy refers to directories and files using their object number.

ZFS organizes and keeps track of filesystems, clones, and snapshots through the DSL (Dataset and Snapshot Layer). The DSL has all sorts of things; DSL directories, DSL datasets, and so on, all of which are objects and many of which refer to object sets (for example, every ZFS filesystem must refer to its current object set somehow). All of these DSL objects are themselves stored as dnodes in another object set, the Meta Object Set, which the uberblock points to. To my surprise, object sets are not stored in the MOS (and as a result do not have ‘object numbers’). Object sets are always referred to directly, without indirection, using a block pointer to the object set’s dnode. (I think object sets are referred to directly so that snapshots can freeze their object set very simply.)

The DSL directories and datasets for your pool’s set of filesystems form a tree themselves (each filesystem has a DSL directory and at least one DSL dataset). However, just like in ZFS filesystems, all of the objects in this second tree refer to each other indirectly, by their MOS object number. Just as with files in ZFS filesystems, this level of indirection limits the amount of copy on write updates that ZFS had to do when something changes.

PS: If you want to examine MOS objects with zdb, I think you do it with something like ‘zdb -vvv -d ssddata 1’, which will get you object number 1 of the MOS, which is the MOS object directory. If you want to ask zdb about an object in the pool’s root filesystem, use ‘zdb -vvv -d ssddata/ 1’. You can tell which one you’re getting depending on what zdb prints out. If it says ‘Dataset mos [META]’ you’re looking at objects from the MOS; if it says ‘Dataset ssddata [ZPL]’, you’re looking at the pool’s root filesystem (where object number 1 is the ZFS master node).

PPS: I was going to write up what changed on a filesystem write, but then I realized that I didn’t know how blocks being allocated and freed are reflected in pool structures. So I’ll just say that I think that ignoring free space management, only four DMU objects get updated; the file itself, the filesystem’s object set, the filesystem’s DSL dataset object, and the MOS.

  • (As usual, doing the research to write this up taught me things that I didn’t know about ZFS.)

Digital Ocean

###HardenedBSD Foundation Status

On 09 July 2018, the HardenedBSD Foundation Board of Directors held the kick-off meeting to start organizing the Foundation. The following people attended the kick-off meeting:

    1. Shawn Webb (in person)
    1. George Saylor (in person)
    1. Ben Welch (in person)
    1. Virginia Suydan (in person)
    1. Ben La Monica (phone)
    1. Dean Freeman (phone)
    1. Christian Severt (phone)

We discussed the very first steps that need to be taken to organize the HardenedBSD Foundation as a 501©(3) not-for-profit organization in the US. We determined we could file a 1023EZ instead of the full-blown 1023. This will help speed the process up drastically.

  • The steps are laid out as follows:
  • Register a Post Office Box (PO Box) (completed on 10 Jul 2018).
  • Register The HardenedBSD Foundation as a tax-exempt nonstock corporation in the state of Maryland (started on 10 Jul 2018, submitted on 18 Jul 2018, granted 20 Jul 2018).
  • Obtain a federal tax ID (obtained 20 Jul 2018).
  • Close the current bank account and create a new one using the federal tax ID (completed on 20 Jul 2018).
  • File the 1023EZ paperwork with the federal government (started on 20 Jul 2018).
  • Hire an attorney to help draft the organization bylaws.
  • Each of the steps must be done serially and in order.

We added Christian Severt, who is on Emerald Onion’s Board of Directors, to the HardenedBSD Foundation Board of Directors as an advisor. He was foundational in getting Emerald Onion their 501©(3) tax-exempt, not-for-profit status and has really good insight. Additionally, he’s going to help HardenedBSD coordinate hosting services, figuring out the best deals for us.

We promoted George Saylor to Vice President and changed Shawn Webb’s title to President and Director. This is to help resolve potential concerns both the state and federal agencies might have with an organization having only a single President role.

We hope to be granted our 501©(3) status before the end of the year, though that may be subject to change. We are excited for the formation of the HardenedBSD Foundation, which will open up new opportunities not otherwise available to HardenedBSD.

###More mitigations against speculative execution vulnerabilities

Philip Guenther (guenther@) and Bryan Steele (brynet@) have added more mitigations against speculative execution CPU vulnerabilities on the amd64 platform.

CVSROOT: /cvs Module name: src Changes by: guenther@cvs.openbsd.org 2018/07/23 11:54:04 Modified files: sys/arch/amd64/amd64: locore.S sys/arch/amd64/include: asm.h cpufunc.h frameasm.h Log message: Do "Return stack refilling", based on the "Return stack underflow" discussion and its associated appendix at https://support.google.com/faqs/answer/7625886 This should address at least some cases of "SpectreRSB" and earlier Spectre variants; more commits to follow. The refilling is done in the enter-kernel-from-userspace and return-to-userspace-from-kernel paths, making sure to do it before unblocking interrupts so that a successive interrupt can't get the CPU to C code without doing this refill. Per the link above, it also does it immediately after mwait, apparently in case the low-power CPU states of idle-via-mwait flush the RSB. ok mlarkin@ deraadt@``` + and: ```CVSROOT: /cvs Module name: src Changes by: guenther@cvs.openbsd.org 2018/07/23 20:42:25 Modified files: sys/arch/amd64/amd64: locore.S vector.S vmm_support.S sys/arch/amd64/include: asm.h cpufunc.h Log message: Also do RSB refilling when context switching, after vmexits, and when vmlaunch or vmresume fails. Follow the lead of clang and the intel recommendation and do an lfence after the pause in the speculation-stop path for retpoline, RSB refill, and meltover ASM bits. ok kettenis@ deraadt@``` + "Mitigation G-2" for AMD processors: ```CVSROOT: /cvs Module name: src Changes by: brynet@cvs.openbsd.org 2018/07/23 17:25:03 Modified files: sys/arch/amd64/amd64: identcpu.c sys/arch/amd64/include: specialreg.h Log message: Add "Mitigation G-2" per AMD's Whitepaper "Software Techniques for Managing Speculation on AMD Processors" By setting MSR C001_1029[1]=1, LFENCE becomes a dispatch serializing instruction. Tested on AMD FX-4100 "Bulldozer", and Linux guest in SVM vmd(8) ok deraadt@ mlarkin@``` *** ##Beastie Bits + [HardenedBSD will stop supporting 10-STABLE on 10 August 2018](https://groups.google.com/a/hardenedbsd.org/forum/#!topic/users/xvU0g-g1l5U) + [GSoC 2018 Reports: Integrate libFuzzer with the Basesystem, Part 2](https://blog.netbsd.org/tnf/entry/gsoc_2018_reports_integrate_libfuzzer1) + [ZFS Boot Environments at PBUG](https://vermaden.wordpress.com/2018/07/30/zfs-boot-environments-at-pbug/) + [Second Editions versus the Publishing Business](https://blather.michaelwlucas.com/archives/3229) + [Theo de Raadt on "unveil(2) usage in base"](https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article;sid=20180728063716) + [rtadvd(8) has been replaced by rad(8)](https://undeadly.org/cgi?action=article;sid=20180724072205) + [BSD Users Stockholm Meetup #3](https://www.meetup.com/BSD-Users-Stockholm/events/253447019/) + [Changes to NetBSD release support policy](https://blog.netbsd.org/tnf/entry/changes_to_netbsd_release_support) + [The future of HAMMER1](http://lists.dragonflybsd.org/pipermail/users/2018-July/357832.html) *** **Tarsnap** ##Feedback/Questions + Rodriguez - [A Question](http://dpaste.com/0Y1B75Q#wrap) + Shane - [About ZFS Mostly](http://dpaste.com/32YGNBY#wrap) + Leif - [ZFS less than 8gb](http://dpaste.com/2GY6HHC#wrap) + Wayne - [ZFS vs EMC](http://dpaste.com/17PSCXC#wrap) *** - Send questions, comments, show ideas/topics, or stories you want mentioned on the show to [feedback@bsdnow.tv](mailto:feedback@bsdnow.tv)

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August 30th, 2018

1:49:13

Insight into TrueOS and Trident, stop evildoers with pf-badhost, Flashback to FreeBSDcon ‘99, OpenBSD’s measures against TLBleed, play Morrowind on OpenBSD in 5 steps, DragonflyBSD developers shocked at Threadripper …

Episode 260: Hacking Tour of Europe | BSD Now 260

August 23rd, 2018

1:20:14

Trip reports from the Essen Hackathon and BSDCam, CfT: ZFS native encryption and UFS trim consolidation, ZFS performance benchmarks on a FreeBSD …

Episode 259: Long Live Unix | BSD Now 259

August 16th, 2018

1:47:36

The strange birth and long life of Unix, FreeBSD jail with a single public IP, EuroBSDcon 2018 talks and schedule, OpenBSD on G4 iBook, PAM template …

Episode 257: Great NetBSD 8 | BSD Now 257

August 2nd, 2018

1:23:11

NetBSD 8.0 available, FreeBSD on Scaleway’s ARM64 VPS, encrypted backups with OpenBSD, Dragonfly server storage upgrade, zpool checkpoints, g2k18 …

Episode 256: Because Computers | BSD Now 2^8

July 25th, 2018

1:44:42

FreeBSD ULE vs. Linux CFS, OpenBSD on Tuxedo InfinityBook, how zfs diff reports filenames efficiently, why choose FreeBSD over Linux, PS4 double free exploit, OpenBSD’s wifi autojoin, and FreeBSD jails the hard way.

Episode 255: What Are You Pointing At | BSD Now 255

July 18th, 2018

1:20:27

What ZFS blockpointers are, zero-day rewards offered, KDE on FreeBSD status, new FreeBSD core team, NetBSD WiFi refresh, poor man’s CI, and the power …

Episode 254: Bare the OS | BSD Now 254

July 12th, 2018

1:31:23

Control flow integrity with HardenedBSD, fixing bufferbloat with OpenBSD’s pf, Bareos Backup Server on FreeBSD, MeetBSD CfP, crypto simplified …

Episode 253: Silence of the Fans | BSD Now 253

July 5th, 2018

1:26:51

Fanless server setup with FreeBSD, NetBSD on pinebooks, another BSDCan trip report, transparent network audio, MirBSD's Korn Shell on Plan9, static site generators on OpenBSD, and more.

##Headlines
###Silent Fanless …

Episode 252: Goes to 11.2 | BSD Now 252

June 28th, 2018

1:34:26

FreeBSD 11.2 has been released, setting up an MTA behind Tor, running pfsense on DigitalOcean, one year of C, using OpenBGPD to announce VM networks, the power to serve, and a BSDCan trip report.

##Headlines
###FreeBSD …

Episode 251: Crypto HAMMER | BSD Now 251

June 21st, 2018

1:28:43

DragonflyBSD’s hammer1 encrypted master/slave setup, second part of our BSDCan recap, NomadBSD 1.1-RC1 available, OpenBSD adds an LDAP client to …

Episode 250: BSDCan 2018 Recap | BSD Now 250

June 14th, 2018

1:41:10

TrueOS becoming a downstream fork with Trident, our BSDCan 2018 recap, HardenedBSD Foundation founding efforts, VPN with OpenIKED on OpenBSD, FreeBSD on a System76 Galago Pro, and hardware accelerated crypto on Octeons.

Episode 249: Router On A Stick | BSD Now 249

June 6th, 2018

1:25:17

OpenZFS and DTrace updates in NetBSD, NetBSD network security stack audit, Performance of MySQL on ZFS, OpenSMTP results from p2k18, legacy Windows …

Episode 248: Show Me The Mooney | BSD Now 248

May 29th, 2018

1:44:33

DragonflyBSD release 5.2.1 is here, BPF kernel exploit writeup, Remote Debugging the running OpenBSD kernel, interview with Patrick Mooney, FreeBSD buildbot setup in a jail, dumping your USB, and 5 years of gaming on …

Episode 247: Interning for FreeBSD | BSD Now 247

May 24th, 2018

1:29:59

FreeBSD internship learnings, exciting developments coming to FreeBSD, running FreeNAS on DigitalOcean, Network Manager control for OpenBSD, OpenZFS …

Episode 246: Properly Coordinated Disclosure | BSD Now 246

May 17th, 2018

1:29:54

How Intel docs were misinterpreted by almost any OS, a look at the mininet SDN emulator, do’s and don’ts for FreeBSD, OpenBSD community going gold, …

Episode 245: ZFS User Conf 2018 | BSD Now 245

May 10th, 2018

1:24:37

Allan’s recap of the ZFS User conference, first impressions of OmniOS by a BSD user, Nextcloud 13 setup on FreeBSD, OpenBSD on a fanless desktop computer, an intro to HardenedBSD, and DragonFlyBSD getting some SMP …

Episode 244: C is a Lie | BSD Now 244

May 3rd, 2018

1:25:32

Arcan and OpenBSD, running OpenBSD 6.3 on RPI 3, why C is not a low-level language, HardenedBSD switching back to OpenSSL, how the Internet was …

Episode 243: Understanding The Scheduler | BSD Now 243

April 25th, 2018

1:25:24

OpenBSD 6.3 and DragonflyBSD 5.2 are released, bug fix for disappearing files in OpenZFS on Linux (and only Linux), understanding the FreeBSD CPU …

Episode 242: Linux Takes The Fastpath | BSD Now 242

April 18th, 2018

1:23:20

TrueOS Stable 18.03 released, a look at F-stack, the secret to an open source business model, intro to jails and jail networking, FreeBSD Foundation March update, and the ipsec Errata.

Headlines TrueOS STABLE 18.03 …

Episode 241: Bowling in the LimeLight | BSD Now 241

April 12th, 2018

2:01:00

Second round of ZFS improvements in FreeBSD, Postgres finds that non-FreeBSD/non-Illumos systems are corrupting data, interview with Kevin Bowling, BSDCan list of talks, and cryptographic right answers.

Episode 240: TCP Blackbox Recording | BSD Now 240

April 7th, 2018

1:39:18

New ZFS features landing in FreeBSD, MAP_STACK for OpenBSD, how to write safer C code with Clang’s address sanitizer, Michael W. Lucas on sponsor gifts, TCP blackbox recorder, and Dell disk system hacking.

Episode 239: The Return To ptrace | BSD Now 239

March 29th, 2018

1:32:43

OpenBSD firewalling Windows 10, NetBSD’s return to ptrace, TCP Alternative Backoff, the BSD Poetic license, and AsiaBSDcon 2018 videos available.

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